The economy in Caquetá Is based on the ranching industry as well on agriculture. It is important to mention that mining industry and trade are important activities too. The ranching industry is the main productive source in the Department followed by the agricultural activity, which is based on traditional crops very important for the subsistance of people in Caquetá: corn, plantain, yucca, non irrigated-rice, cane (a typical variety called "panelera"), oil palm, banana, yucca, non-irrigated mechanized rice, cocoa, beans and sorghum.
Gold, silver, hydrocarbon, asphalt, marble, limestone, gypsum, aluminium and granite are extracted on a small-scaled. The manufacturing activity is based on the production of consumer goods such as liquor and soft drinks.There are also small businesses like the ones called "machiembradoras", tile factories and ornamentation workshops.